Determine the patient's readiness for change. Motivating a reluctant patient is one of the great challenges in treatment. To enhance the prospects of successful treatment, the clinician needs to have a basic concept of the stages of change. The 5 stages of change (Prochaska,) provide fundamental guidance for enhancing motivation. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment presents this concept in detail through a Treatment Improvement Protocol titled "Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Abuse Treatment." The 5 stages of change are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Specific strategies aligned with each of the 5 stages help a clinician motivate and prepare the patient for change. The 5 stages of change represent a cycle, permitting and explaining behavior that moves in both progressive and regressive directions.
The Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation is a force of healing and hope for individuals, families and communities affected by addiction to alcohol and other drugs. As the nation's leading nonprofit provider of comprehensive inpatient and outpatient treatment for adults and youth, the Foundation has 17 locations nationwide and collaborates with an expansive network throughout health care. With a legacy that began in 1949 and includes the 1982 founding of the Betty Ford Center, the Foundation today also encompasses a graduate school of addiction studies, a publishing division, an addiction research center, recovery advocacy and thought leadership, professional and medical education programs, school-based prevention resources and a specialized program for children who grow up in families with addiction.
Drugs are built to interfere with those messages, causing the release of too many neurotransmitters for the wrong behavior—taking drugs. This causes a huge spike in pleasure for a destructive activity that eclipses normally pleasant activities needed for survival. Drug use also prevents normal reuptake of these brain chemicals, throwing off the entire process and your natural balance, altering your mood. Soon, all that matters is to produce that flood of neurotransmitters again—and due to the addiction, there’s just one way to do that: drug use.
At the end of an intervention, the stage is set for entry into addiction treatment programs. There are many different options out there. Some facilities, for example, offer inpatient treatment for addiction. These programs allow people to step away from their day-to-day concerns and tackle an addiction around the clock, every single day. For some people, that tight focus is an ideal setup for healing. But outpatient centers can be ideal for those who want to stay at home, surrounded by family, while they work on addictions to alcohol. It’s a personal decision that families can make in consultation with the person who needs help.
Cocaine is often viewed as an elite drug, associated with movie stars, models, and other celebrities; however, the destructive consequences of cocaine addiction are anything but glamorous. Produced from the leaves of the South American coca plant, cocaine can be snorted as a powder, or diluted with liquid and injected into the bloodstream. In the form of crack, cocaine can be smoked for an intensified rush of energy. As a central nervous system stimulant, cocaine accelerates the activities of the brain, nerves, and heart, putting even healthy users at risk of heart attack or stroke.
Drug addiction is defined by the existence of both psychological dependence and physical dependence on at least one illicit substance, according to PubMed Health. Marijuana, cocaine, crystal meth, heroin, synthetic drugs and even prescription drugs that can be effective medically are highly addictive. There are a number of reasons why someone may develop an addiction, but recovery comes the same way to everyone: through comprehensive treatment that addresses individual obstacles to sobriety.
For many recovering alcoholics, the mental health aspects of treatment are the most important. Improving mental health means helping patients better understand the chronic condition they are suffering from. It means equipping them with the tools they need to control their thoughts and emotions, avoid addictive triggers, and just stay away from alcohol altogether.
Like any other life-threatening disease, drug addiction requires intensive treatment by credentialed specialists. While some may be able to find recovery alone, true healing is a lifelong process that typically requires continued support. Drug addiction treatment options range from medical detox and inpatient care to 12-step programming, pharmacotherapy and outpatient services. Throughout a continuum of care, patients are offered resources, skills and support to ensure that they’re making progress toward recovery goals.
Recovery housing, which provides supervised, short-term housing for patients, often following other types of inpatient or residential treatment. Recovery housing can help people make the transition to an independent life—for example, helping them learn how to manage finances or seek employment, as well as connecting them to support services in the community.
Inpatient or residential treatment can also be very effective, especially for those with more severe problems (including co-occurring disorders). Licensed residential treatment facilities offer 24-hour structured and intensive care, including safe housing and medical attention. Residential treatment facilities may use a variety of therapeutic approaches, and they are generally aimed at helping the patient live a drug-free, crime-free lifestyle after treatment. Examples of residential treatment settings include:
It can be heartbreaking to realize that your loved one has a problem with alcohol. You want to do anything you can to help — but you’re afraid that if you speak up, you could destroy your relationship, or even drive your loved one deeper into addiction. At first, it’s much easier to deny the problem. But as time goes on and personal, financial, or legal problems increase, you’ll have to face the possibility that your loved one could have a substance use disorder. Learning to recognize the red flags of alcoholism could not only save your relationship, it could help you avoid a tragedy.
Psychological dependency is addressed in many drug rehabilitation programs by attempting to teach the patient new methods of interacting in a drug-free environment. In particular, patients are generally encouraged, or possibly even required, to not associate with peers who still use the addictive substance. Twelve-step programs encourage addicts not only to stop using alcohol or other drugs, but to examine and change habits related to their addictions. Many programs emphasize that recovery is a permanent process without culmination. For legal drugs such as alcohol, complete abstention—rather than attempts at moderation, which may lead to relapse—is also emphasized ("One is too many, and a thousand is never enough.") Whether moderation is achievable by those with a history of abuse remains a controversial point, but is generally considered unsustainable.
Different rehabs are based upon different philosophies, and this can mean the enhancement of addiction treatment with distinct specialized services. For example, a religious rehab may include worship services or religion classes and other offerings that enhance the spiritual side of recovery while a holistic alcohol rehab may include yoga, meditation, acupuncture and other alternative methods of treatment.
The specific medicines prescribed will vary depending upon your own particular experience of withdrawal and the symptoms you are manifesting, and it may be that certain medications will not be appropriate depending on your substance of abuse or your own personal health history; an experienced medical professional will be able to make those decisions to ensure you go through withdrawal as safely as possible. What happens in rehab?